"Analogy is our best guide in all philosophical investigations; and all discoveries, which were not made by mere accident, have been made by the help of it." ~ Joseph Priestley 1733-1804. Pioneer in chemistry and electricity.
The law of analogy and Correspondence denotes that similarity exists in some characteristics of things that are otherwise perceived to be not alike. As the law of analogy is a comparison between two objects, or systems of objects, that highlights respects in which they are thought to be similar.
Therefore, Analogical reasoning is seen to be a type of thinking that relies upon the use of an analogy. Thus an analogical argument is seen to represent as an explicit representation of a form of analogical reasoning, that cites accepted similarities between two systems which support the conclusion that some similarity and Correspondence exists between them. Analogical reasoning therefore is fundamental to human thought, as it plays a significant and sometimes mysterious role in the development of a wide range of problem-solving techniques and contexts. For the use of analogical arguments since antiquity, has been a distinctive feature of scientific, philosophical and legal reasoning. On that point, to the metaphysicist, it's believed the use of this principle will help in making us more able to understand much that would otherwise be unknowable to Us. For its seen by many to be an important mental instrument through which we can join the metaphorical dots in our pursuit of finding those great universal truths. Subsequently, through our grasping of this Principle of Analogy, it will help in giving us the means to aquire many great secrets of nature and solving much of life's paradoxs.
"The Law of Analogy, or as it is sometimes called the Law of Correspondence, is the fundamental idea in the Esoteric Philosophy, and its right application is the key-note to all Esoteric study. It is by means of this law that we can proceed from the known to the unknown, and thus widen the circle of our knowledge. The same changeless laws of evolution and involution are at work in an atom, a man, a world, a universe; and if we rightly understood the meaning of one moment of our lives, we should understand the whole." ~ Helena Petrovna Blavatsky - Еле́на Петро́вна Блава́тская, 1831-1891.
"Analogy - ἀναλογία - analogia, "proportion" is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject from the analogue or source to another subject or truth, it's like precious gold, it is to be obtained not by its growth, but by washing away from it all that is not gold through contemplation and mediation. form of reasoning in which one thing is inferred to be similar to another thing in a certain respect, on the basis of the known similarity between the things in other respects. The Scientist must set in order. Science is built up with facts, as a house is with stones. But a collection of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones is a house." ~ Jules Henri Poincaré, 1854-1912. Science and Hypothesis.
Therefore, when someone puts forth a proposition and suggests that you believe in an analogy of any sort, you should first examine it. To see whether it corresponds to that which is universally seen to be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. As a good analogical argument can indeed provide support for a hypothesis or theory. But there are good reasons to doubt the claim that analogies can provide actual factual confirmation. As it was Aristotles who layed the foundation for sophisticated emperical analyses and the commonsense approach when it comes to the theoretical reflections of Analogies. As the main criteria for analogical reasoning is the basis of the validity of an analogical argument being based on the validity of the associated analogy through its correlations, similarities and identical meanings, which is scientifical referred to as structural mapping. Therefore through the validity of the analogy being given through imperial structural mapping, will give a metric measurement that will indicate how closely said analogy approximates to the similarities in which those relations between them are embedded.
"Analogies are about relations, rather than simple features. No matter what kind of knowledge (causal models, plans, stories, etc.), it is the structural properties (i.e., the interrelationships between the facts) that determine the content of an analogy." ~ Dedre Gentner.
As you see then, the use of reasoning through Analogy plays a significant role in the metaphysical approach of trying to find that unifying feild theory.
"Analogy, the much-abused but powerful instrument of human thinking, is now recognized as one of the master keys opening nature's portals. One general law and one common system of manifestation rule throughout the universe, and in this fact lies the meaning of that wonderful Hermetic axiom: "As it is above, so is it below; as it is below, so is it above." Or, expressed more fully: As things are above so are they in all intermediate spheres, and below. And as they are here below, or underneath us in planes still more material than ours, so are they above us in planes vastly more spiritual. This does not imply identities in any collection of cases, but states the operation of uniform action in what we call nature; and any such uniform action, consistent always and continuous, having a beginning and proceeding to its cyclic end, we call a "law of nature." ~ Gottfried de Purucker 1874-1942.
"Analogy is the final word of science and the first word of faith. Harmony consists in equilibrium, and equilibrium subsists by the analogy of contraries. Absolute unity is the supreme and final reason of things. Now, this reason can be neither one person nor three persons: it is a reason, and reason at the highest. To create equilibrium we must separate and unite – separate by the poles, unite by the centre. To reason upon faith is to destroy faith; to create mysticism in philosophy is to assail reason. Reason and faith, by their nature, mutually exclude one another, but they unite by analogy. Analogy is the sole possible mediator between finite and infinite.
Analogy yields all forces of Nature to the Magus; analogy is the quintessence of the Philosophical Stone, the secret of perpetual motion, the quadrature of the circle, the Temple resting on the two pillars JAKIN and BOAZ, the key of the Great Arcanum, the root of the Tree of Life, the science of good and evil. To find the exact scale of correspondences in things appreciable by science is to fix the bases of faith and thus become possessed of the rod of miracles. Now, there exists a principle and a rigorous formula, which is the Great Arcanum." ~ Éliphas Lévi. 1810-1875.
For the best way to find whether an analogy is fallacious is to see whether you can discover a counter analogy. For this is the most effective practice in testing to see if said analogy is true, before refuting said analogy in argument to be false. As the truth of the analogy will be found neither in the thesis nor the antithesis, but in an emergent synthesis which reconciles the two. As an analogical argument is warranted by facts that must be investigated and justified empirically.
THE Philosophical Laws Of Analogy.
°The more similarities (between two domains), the stronger the analogy.
°The more differences, the weaker the analogy.
°The greater the extent of our ignorance about the two domains, the weaker the analogy.
°The weaker the conclusion, the more plausible the analogy.
°Analogies involving causal relations are more plausible than those not involving causal relations.
°Structural analogies are stronger than those based on superficial similarities.
°The relevance of the similarities and differences to the conclusion (i.e., to the hypothetical analogy) must be taken into account.
°Multiple analogies supporting the same conclusion make the argument stronger.
°Requirement of material analogy. The horizontal relations must include similarities between observable properties.
°Causal condition. The vertical relations must be causal relations “in some acceptable scientific sense”
°No-essential-difference condition. The essential properties and causal relations of the source domain must not have been shown to be part of the negative analogy.
"Law of analogies in fact, has been for k-c-qabalists of a secondary rank the object of a blind and fanatical faith. It is to this belief that one must attribute all the superstitions with which the adepts of occult science have been reproached.
°This is how they reasoned:
°The sign expresses the thing.
°The thing is the virtue of the sign.
°There is an analogical correspondence between the sign and the thing signified.
°The more perfect is the sign, the more entire is the correspondence.
For instance, to say a word is to evoke a thought and make it present. To name God is to manifest God.The word acts upon souls, and souls react upon bodies; consequently one can frighten, console, cause to fall ill, cure, even kill, and raise from the dead by means of words. To utter a name is to create or evoke a being. In the name is contained the "verbal" or spiritual doctrine of the being itself.
When the soul evokes a thought, the sign of that thought is written automatically in the light. To invoke is to adjure, that is to say, to swear by a name; it is to perform an act of faith in that name, and to communicate in the virtue which it represents. Words in themselves are, then, good or evil, poisonous or wholesome. The most dangerous words are vain and lightly uttered words, because they are the voluntary abortions of thought.
A useless word is a crime against the spirit of intelligence; it is an intellectual infanticide.Things are for every one what he makes of them by naming them. The "word" of every one is an impression or an habitual prayer. To speak well is to live well.
A fine style is an aureole of holiness. From these principles, some true, others hypothetical, and from the more or less exaggerated consequences that they draw from them, there resulted for superstitious qabalists and absolute confidence in enchantments, evocations, conjurations and mysterious prayers. Now, as faith has always accomplished miracles, apparitions, oracles, mysterious cures, sudden and strange maladies, have never been lacking to it.
Analogy therefore is the final word of science and the first word of faith. Harmony consists in equilibrium, and equilibrium subsists by the analogy of contraries. Absolute unity is the supreme and final reason of things. Now, this reason can be neither one person nor three persons: it is a reason, and reason at the highest.
To create equilibrium we must separate and unite – separate by the poles, unite by the centre. To reason upon faith is to destroy faith; to create mysticism in philosophy is to assail reason. Reason and faith, by their nature, mutually exclude one another, but they unite by analogy. Analogy is the sole possible mediator between finite and infinite. Dogma is the ever-ascending hypothesis of a presumable equation.
For the ignorant, it is the hypothesis which is the absolute affirmation, and the absolute affirmation which is hypothesis. Hypotheses are necessary in science, and he who seeks to verify them enlarges science without decreasing faith, for on the farther side of faith is the infinite. We believe in that which we do not know, but which reason leads us to admit. To define and circumscribe the object of faith is therefore to formulate the unknown.
Professions of faith are formulations of the ignorance and aspirations of man. The theorems of science are monuments of his conquests. The man who denies God is not less fanatical than he who defines Him with pretended infallibility. God is commonly defined by the enumeration of all that He is not. Man makes God in his own image by an analogy from the lesser to the greater, whence it results that the conception of God by man is ever that of an infinite man who makes man a finite god.
Man can realize that which he believes in the measure of that which he knows, by reason of that which he knows not, and he can accomplish all that he wills in the measure of that which he believes and by reason of that which he knows. The analogy of contraries is the relation of light and shade, of height and hollow, of plenum and void. Allegory, the mother of all dogmas, is the substitution of impressions for dies, of shadows for realities. It is the fable of truth and the truth of fable. One does not invent a dogma, one veils a truth, and a shade for weak eyes is produced. The initiator is not an impostor, he is a revealer, that is, following the meaning of the Latin word revelare, a man who veils afresh. He is the creator of a new shadow.
Analogy is the key of all secrets of Nature and the sole fundamental reason of all revelations. That is why religions seem to be written in the heavens and in all Nature, which is just as it should be, for the work of God is the books of God.
~ Éliphas Lévi. 1810-1875.
Therefore, a study of the law of analogy can bring with it an ever-greater realization of the fact that all things are working together towards a common end.
"There is no real separation or disjunction between thing and thing, or between consciousness and consciousness; therefore none between world and world, and man and man. The farther we go from the heart of Being, the farther we advance outwards from the splendor within, the more are our eyes blinded by the illusions of the phenomenal world, because we lose the faculty of discrimination, of judgment and of intuitive power, for our conscious life is then centered in the multitude of things around us and beneath us, in the atomic world which enshrouds and surrounds us. Our consciousness is, so to say, become diffused and spread over multitudes, instead of being concentrated, as it always is at the heart of our being, in supernal LIGHT. Yet such is the pathway of progress, and it is in this manner that we learn the nature of this universe surrounding us; and such course upwards from the invisible on each new cycle is each time a course of progress on a higher plane." ~ Gottfried de Purucker, 1874-1942.
You see then, the metaphysical principle of Analogy and Correspondence helps provide us with insight into the criteria for evaluating analogical arguments. As it provides us with the evaluative framework to differentiate between subjective and objective truths. As many scholars of all sciences have used and considered this Principle to be One of the most important mental instruments through which we can reason intelligently and express, veiw, reveal and pry open the unknown, and that which is hidden from our understanding.
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By - Paul Francis Young.